State-Orientated Maintenance

for Electrical Joints Using an Infrared Camera


The installers and oper­a­tors of low, medi­um and high volt­age elec­tri­cal pow­er trans­mis­sion sys­tems trans­fer are being intro­duced into a method, with which a con­di­tion depen­dent repair of elec­tri­cal con­nec­tions is pos­si­ble. The costs for the main­te­nance of the plants are min­i­mized while at the same time increas­ing reliability.


  • cur­rent tran­si­tion between two con­duc­tors in an elec­tri­cal connenction/connection resis­tance — con­tact model

  • direct deter­mi­na­tion of the con­nec­tion resis­tance in the area of few µOhm accord­ing to the current-voltage-method

  • indi­rect deter­mi­na­tion of the con­nec­tion resis­tance from the tem­per­a­ture with the ther­mal net­work method

  • basics of the ther­mal trans­fer of the con­nec­tion to the surroundings

  • devel­op­ment the ther­mal net­work for the cal­cu­la­tion of the con­nec­tion resis­tances from the tem­per­a­ture below con­sid­er­a­tion of the para­me­ters of the load

  • mea­sur­ing of the con­nec­tion tem­per­a­ture with an infrared camera

  • mea­sur­ing and analy­sis of the load cur­rent and environment

  • set­up of the equip­ment sys­tem for the con­tact­less deter­mi­na­tion of the con­nec­tion resistance

  • long-term behav­iour of elec­tri­cal connections

  • math­e­mat­i­cal and phys­i­cal mod­els for the cal­cu­la­tion of the life time of elec­tri­cal connections

  • long-term tests on elec­tri­cal con­nec­tions, depen­dent on the mate­r­i­al, the con­struc­tion, the assem­bly and the load due to cur­rent and environment

  • deter­mi­na­tion of the resid­ual life­time of con­nec­tions depend­ing on the load

  • deter­mi­na­tion of the time of the repair

  • prac­ti­cal exer­cis­es for the direct mea­sur­ing of con­nec­tion resis­tances and for use of the infrared diag­nos­tic system

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